Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing to add,
and when there is nothing to remove.

Antoine de Saint-exupéry

Obtained convincing evidence for the existence of Majorana fermions, quasiparticles that can be used in the field of quantum computing

12 Sep 2017

We remind our readers that in 1937, Italian physicist Ettore Majorana (Ettore Majorana) theoretically justified the possibility of the existence of exotic quasiparticles, which are their own antiparticles. After this was undertaken a number of studies and experiments aimed at finding evidence of these quasiparticles, which are called Majorana fermions (Majorana fermions). The first evidence of the possibility of their existence was obtained in 2012 by researchers of the Technological University of Delft (Delft University of Technology), the Netherlands. To do this, scientists used the electron beam, launched in nanorobotic placed near the site of a superconducting material.

After the experience of 2012 was conducted a few experiments, the results of which pointed to the possibility of the existence of Majorana fermions. However, all of these experiments, including the first, and left a loophole for the possibility of alternative explanations for the obtained results. "Until recently, had not received any credible and reliable evidence of the existence of Majorana fermions," says Zhang Hao (Hao Zhang), a researcher from TU Delft.

To search for evidence of the existence of Majorana fermions researchers from the Technological University of Delft, University of Technology Eindhoven (Eindhoven University of Technology), the Netherlands, and the University of California (University of California), Santa Barbara, USA, has created a device from intersecting nanorobotics, resembles hastega symbol (#). Four-point contact nanorobotics represent places where Majorana particles can exchange places, not contacting and destroying each other.

"We have conducted the experiments gave results that contain unique information relevant only to mairanovsky the fermions. And these results cannot be explained from the point of view of any other alternative theory," says Hao Zhang, "All this can be considered as the first convincing proof of the existence of Majorana fermions".

In addition to obtaining evidence of the existence of Majorana fermions, these studies provide evidence of the feasibility of the technology the so called topological quantum computing, in which the role of quantum bits, qubits, will perform the Majorana quasiparticles. In topological quantum computing, quantum information can be contained in a quantum state of the fermion, and the processing of information will be performed by its transfer from one fermion to another. The sequence of the chain of information transfer will determine the type (algorithm) of processing and in this processing method, the likelihood of errors is much lower probabilities at work in quantum computing systems of a different type.

A small possibility of error is a consequence of the ability of Majorana fermions to be in a state of quantum superposition in a long time, many times greater than the time spent in a state of quantum superposition of qubits based on ions or photons. "This is a major advantage of qubits based on Majorana fermions in comparison with other types of qubits," says Hao Zhang, "But the longer-term retention of superposition of Majorana qubits should be due to their topological insulation which acts as protection against external factors".

The researchers reported that they have already started to work towards a workable qubits on the basis of Majorana fermions. These qubits will be the basis of the first experimental quantum chip with micro-management, by which studies will be conducted, the results of which will determine the feasibility of further work in this direction.